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“Life can only be understood backwards; but it must be lived forwards.”
― Søren Kierkegaard
As the brilliant existentialist so aptly put it, life is a complete mystery to human comprehension. Welcome to my profile, enjoy your stay!
Date Coverage Readings and Assignments
August 27 Week 1-1
Introduction and Benchmarks • Read the syllabus, review WebCampus, purchase all the required books
August 29 Week 1-2
The Beginnings of “Civilization” *** Quiz 1 ***
• Hunt, pp. 3-25
• Lualdi, pp. 15-25
o Epic of Gilgamesh
o Code of Hammurabi
Sept 3 Week 2-1
Empires of the Near East • Hunt, pp. 26-32
• Lualdi, pp. 33-36; 37-38
o Treaty between Egyptians and Hittites
o Inscription Honoring Cyrus, King of Persia
o Sources on Ancient Perisa [WEB]
Sept 5 Week 2-2
The Old Testament and History ***Text Explication Quiz ***
• Sources on Ancient Israel [WEB]
• Lualdi, pp. 39-41
o Exodus 19-20
Sept 10 Week 3-1
The Early Greeks • Hunt, pp. 33-50
• Lualdi, pp. 42-53
o Tyrtaes of Sparta and Solon of Athens
o Herodotus, “The Foundation of Cyrene”
o Poems of Sappho
Sept 12 Week 3-2
The Greek Golden Age 1 ***Map Quiz ***
• Hunt, pp. 51-88
• The Last Days of Socrates, pp. 31-98
Sept 17 Week 4-1
The Greek Golden Age 2 • The Last Days of Socrates, pp. 31-98
Sept 19 Week 4-2
From the Classical to the Hellenistic World 1 *** Quiz 2 ***
• Hunt, pp. 91-128
• Lualdi, pp. 79-92
o Arrian, “The Campaigns of Alexander the Great”
o Funerary Inscriptions and Epitaphso
Sept 24 Week 5-1
From the Classical to the Hellenistic World 2 • Hellenistic Philosophy [WEB]
Sept 26 Week 5-2
The Rise of Rome *** Quiz 3 ***
• Hunt, pp. 129-168
• Lualdi, pp. 97-109
o 12 Tables
o Women Demonstrate against Oppian Law
o Polybius [WEB]
Oct 1 Week 6-1
The Roman Empire 1 • Hunt, pp. 171-210
• Lualdi, pp. 121-125; 130-132
o Deeds of the Divine Augustus [WEB]
Oct 3 Week 6-2
The Roman Empire 2 *** Quiz 4 ***
o Notices and Graffiti from Pompeii
o Interrogation of Christians
o Marcus Aurelius – The Meditations [WEB]
Oct 8 Week 7-1
Roman Late Antiquity • Hunt, pp. 213-234
• Lualdi, pp. 137-142
o Altar of Victory Sparks a Religious Debate
o Jerome, Letter
o Selections from the Historia Augusta [WEB]
Oct 10 Week 7-2
The Age of Christianities *** Quiz 5 ***
• Selections from the Gospel of Thomas and the Nag Hammadi Corpus [WEB]
Oct 15 Week 8-1 ***Midterm Part I: Test Questions ***
Oct 17 Week 8-2
***Midterm Part II: Essay Questions ***
Oct 22 Week 9-1
Barbarians • Hunt, pp. 235-258
• Selections from Gildas – On the Ruin of Britain [WEB]
• Lualdi, pp. 143-147
o The Burgundian Code
Oct 24 Week 9-2
The Emergence of Islam *** Quiz 6 ***
• Hunt, pp. 268-274
• Lualdi, pp. 153-158
o Qur’an, Suras 1, 53, 98
o Islamic Terms of Peace
o Ibn Ishaq: The Life of Muhammad [WEB]
Oct 29 Week 10-1
A New Europe Emerges • Hunt, pp. 259-267; 275-294
• Lualdi, pp. 159-169
o The Life of Theodore of Sykeon
o The Life of Balthild
o Letters of Pope Gregory
Oct 31 Week 10-2
Three Empires *** Quiz 7 ***
• Hunt, pp. 295-336
• Lualdi, pp. 170-178
o General Capitulary
o Luitprand of Cremona
o Veroli Casket
Nov 5 Week 11-1
Modern Perceptions of the Ancient World No reading – review final paper assignment
Nov 7 Week 11-2
Byzantium between East and West • Travelers’ Descriptions of Constantinople [WEB]
Nov 12 Week 12-1
Renewal and Reform • Hunt, pp. 339-384
• Lualdi, pp. 195-201; 206-210
o Pope Urban call for Crusade
o Arab response to Crusade
o Medieval University Life
Nov 14 Week 12-2
Age of Confidence *** Quiz 8 ***
• Hunt, pp. 385-424
• Lualdi, pp. 241-246
o Guyuk Khan’s Letter
Nov 19 Week 13-1
Crisis and Renaissance • Hunt, pp. 425-472
• Lualdi, pp. 236-240; 247-251; 265-268
o Dante’s Divine Comedy
o The Black Death
Nov 21 Week 13-2
The World of Machiavelli 1 • Machiavelli, The Prince
Nov 26 Week 14-1
The World of Machiavelli 2 • Machiavelli, The Prince
Nov 28 Week 14-2
*** Thanksgiving – No Class ***
Dec 2 Week 15-1
Struggles over Beliefs *** FINAL PAPER DUE ***
• Hunt, pp. 473-530
• Luandi, pp. 287-291; 297-303
o Henry IV, Edict of Nantes
o The Trial of Suzanne Gaudry
Dec 5 Week 15-2
Modern Perceptions of the Medieval World
Dec 10 Week 16-1
Final Review ***No Readings – please bring questions to class***
Dec 17 FINAL EXAM
Thales (fl. 585), Anaximander (fl. 560), Anaximenes (fl. 546)
Xenophanes (fl. 530)
Heraclitus (fl. 500)
Quiz #1 assigned
Pythagoras (fl. 530), Philolaus (ca. 470-ca. 385) Parmenides (fl. 475)
Zeno (fl. 450)
Anaxagoras (fl. 460), Empedocles (fl. 450) Leucippus (fl. 430), Democritus (fl. 420)
Parmenides (127b-135d) Republic (VI-VII)
On the Heavens 1.2 D1.3-6, Meteorologica 1V.12
Fragments and Testimonia
(approx. 3 classes) (approx. 1 class) (approx. 2 classes)
(approx. 1 class) (approx. 2 classes) (approx. 1 class)
(approx. 1 class)
(approx. 1 class) (approx. 1 class)
(approx. 2 classes) (approx. 1 class)
Midterm Examination (1 class)
EPICTETUS (50-130 C.E.)
Handbook (approx. 2 classes)
Conclusion (1 class)
COURSE TOPICS: ethics (the human good) and physics (the nature of things).
COURSE GOALS: through their reading, students will achieve familiarity with views of important ancient philosophers on the human good and the nature of things; in class discussions, quizzes, papers and exams, students will learn to interpret, analyze, explain, compare and assess those views.
COURSE TEXTS: all course texts but one are available from the University Bookstore or from online distributors; one reading will be linked to the online course outline:
Cohen, Curd and Reeve, editors. Readings in Ancient Greek Philosophy: from Thales to Aristotle. Fourth edition. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company.
G.M.A. Grube, translator. Plato: The Meno. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company.
David Ross, translator. Aristotle: The Nicomachean Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nicholas P. White, translator. Epictetus: The Handbook. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company.
(To be posted online: Inwood and Gerson, editors. Hellenistic Philosophy: Introductory Readings (pp. 164-178). Second edition. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company. This selection will be linked to the online course outline.)
Readings as assigned
Participation in class discussions
Two take-home quizzes
Two papers (five or six pages long)
Midterm examination (after we complete our discussion of ethics)
Final examination (Thursday, December 12, 8:00 - 10:00 a.m.)
ATTENDANCE: Much of the important work in this course goes on in class. Students are expected to be in attendance except in cases of illness, emergency or religious holiday, to be in attendance for the whole class session and not to make appointments that conflict with class sessions. Graded assignments are based, in part, on class discussion and are expected to reflect familiarity with topics discussed. As a result, it is to your disadvantage to miss class.
If you miss class, contact one of your fellow students to find out what we did in your absence and to get notes on the class you missed. Once you have done that, you are invited to talk to the instructor, either during office hours or before or after class, about what you missed. Please do not e-mail the instructor to find out what you missed in class.
QUIZZES: The format and date of take-home quizzes will be announced. The purpose of quizzes is to aid students in their reading.
PAPERS: The papers will be essays (not research papers). They will be five or six pages long. You need use no books other than the course texts in order to write the papers. In an essay, you state a thesis, explain it and argue for it. The basic structure of an essay is: an introduction in which you state your thesis, the body of the essay in which you explain and argue for your thesis, the conclusion in which you summarize or highlight what you have done in the essay.
Essays will be word-processed or typed, double-spaced, in 10- or 12-point type. They will have a title and a title page. They will be in finished form and without errors in grammar, spelling and punctuation. All quotations will be accompanied by a reference in parentheses. Long quotations will be block indented. Essays will be evaluated on the following basis:
1. Do you have the parts mentioned above (introduction, body, conclusion)?
2. Do you fulfill the functions mentioned above (state thesis, explain it, argue for it, summarize or highlight)?
3. Is the thesis you are writing about an interesting and important one?
4. Does your explanation of the thesis show that it is an interesting and important one? Does your explanation make the basic concepts and terms in your essay clear to the reader?
5. Are your arguments clear and convincing to the reader?
6. Do you use specific examples from the text you are writing about to make your arguments stronger? Do you use direct quotations from the text you are writing about to make your arguments stronger?
7. Does your conclusion add something to the essay as a whole?
8. Is the essay typed or word-processed (double-spaced)? Does it include a title and a title page? Is it in finished form and without errors in grammar, spelling and punctuation? Are all quotations accompanied by a reference in parentheses? Are long quotations block indented?
REFERENCES: Quotations in the text should end with quotation marks followed by a reference in parentheses followed by a period (references to classical texts will be explained in class). For example:
"Courage, for example, when it is not wisdom but like a kind of recklessness: when a man is reckless without understanding, he is harmed, when with understanding he is benefited" (88b).
"Do not seek to have events happen as you want them to, but instead want them to happen as they do happen, and your life will go well" (8).
EXAMINATIONS: The examinations will have two sections, an informational section and an essay section, each worth 50 points. The midterm examination will be held after we finish completion of our discussion of ethics (around the first week of November). The final examination will be Thursday, December 12, 8:00 - 10:00 a.m..
EVALUATION: Grades will be based on the papers, examinations, and quizzes weighted equally (1/3 each). Papers and take-homes will be turned in not e-mailed. Excellent class participation may raise your grade somewhat over the mathematical average, at the discretion of the instructor.
Late papers or quizzes will lose a letter grade for each class session they are late. There are no make-up examinations or quizzes except in the case of serious illness, emergency or religious holiday. There will be no extra credit work. The student will be held responsible for knowing what goes on in class. Absences will not excuse you from knowing due dates of papers and schedules for quizzes and examinations.
The grading scale is: 94-100, A; 90-93 A-; 87-89 B+; 84-86 B; 80-83 B-; 77-79 C+; 74-76 C; 70-73 C-; 67-69 D+; 64-66 D; 60-63 D-; below 60, F.
It is the instructor's policy that cheating, plagiarism or submission of written work for this course which was submitted in another course merits a course grade of 'F'.
USE OF THE INTERNET: Use of the intemet for research purposes is appropriate. However, students should use their own ideas in their papers. In addition, they should be aware that papers plagiarized from internet sources can easily be detected through the use of a search engine such as Google.
PLAGIARISM: Plagiarism is a serious offense. You plagiarize when you use someone else's words or ideas without attribution. When you do this, you are putting forward someone else's work as if it were your own.
Changing a few words in a phrase or sentence is not enough to avoid plagiarism. Instead, when you utilize someone else's exact phrases, put them in quotation marks and cite in parentheses the person whose words you have used. It is fine to paraphrase someone, but when you do, you must say so. You can make it clear by saying "As Plato says..." or "According to Heraclitus...". Finally, do not utilize even short phrases from another person's work without a citation. If you follow these guidelines, you will find it is easy to use sources in your own writing without being academically dishonest.
COURSE LINKS: The course outline and class assignments can be accessed through my homepage: <www.unr.edu/—achten/homepage.html>. They will also be distributed in class. My
Ancient Philosophy Page 5
homepage can also be accessed through the Department of Philosophy website: <www.unr.edu/philosophy> or by means of a search engine such as Google: <www.google.com> (search for: "Deborah Achtenberg" homepage).
INTERNET RESOURCES: See your online course outline for internet resources helpful to this course.
STUDYING: Many students will find that they do better work in this course if they study together with other students.
CLASS FORMAT: The class will be a combination of lecture and discussion. Discussions generally will have a focus rather than being general discussion or debate. Students will be asked to respond to questions asking them to reflect on the texts and the issues raised, to speculate in a thoughtful way when not sure, and in general to participate in discussion. Each student is expected to make at least one in-class comment in every class session.
Class discussions will refer to the course text. Students will need to bring the course text to class if they are to benefit from the discussions.
Web surfing and sending or reading e-mail or text messages during class are not allowed. In addition, please refrain from carrying on extensive side conversations during class discussion, and from eating during class. Please silence cell phones before class.
ACADEMIC SUCCESS SERVICES: If you have difficulty in this course, your first resource is the instructor. After that, in some cases the instructor may suggest that you utilize the services of the Writing Center or the Tutoring Center for additional help (cost covered by student fees): Tutoring Center: 784-6801 <www.unr.edu/tutoring>; Writing Center: 784-6030 <www.unr.edu/writing_center>. In general, students who seek help either from the instructor or at the centers make substantial improvement in their work.
REQUIRED STATEMENT ON DISABILITY POLICY: "Any student with a disability needing academic adjustments or accommodations is requested to speak with the Disability Resource Center (Thompson Building, Suite 101) as soon as possible to arrange for appropriate accommodations."
REQUIRED STATEMENT ON AUDIO AND VIDEO RECORDING: "Surreptitious or covert video-taping of class or unauthorized audio recording of class is prohibited by law and by Board of Regents policy. This class may be videotaped or audio recorded only with the written permission of the instructor. In order to accommodate students with disabilities, some students may be given permission to record class lectures and discussions. Therefore, students should understand that their comments during class may be recorded."
ate, (DON 55e1 1 JOo;s V
6 dui 5 ; < LA-5
Lcoming'back from the Aithiopians the strong Earthshaker
saw him from far on the mountains of. the Solymoi. He was visible
sailing over the sea. Poseidon was. the more angered
285 with him, and shook his head, and spoke to his own spirit:
'For shame, surely the gods have rashly changed their intentions
about Odysseus while I was away in the Aithiopians'
land, and he nears the Phaiakian country where it is appointed
that he shall escape this great trial of misery that is now his.
290 .But I think I can still give him a good full portion of trouble.'
He spoke, and pulled the clouds together, in both hands gripping
the trident, and staggered the sea, and let loose all the stormblasts
of all the winds together, and huddled under the cloud scuds
land alike and the great water. Night sprang from heaven..
295 East Wind and South Wind dashed together, and the bitter blown West
and the North Wind born in the bright air rolled up a heavy sea.
The knees of Odysseus gave way for fear, and the heart inside him,
and deeply troubled he spoke to his own great-hearted spirit:
'Ah me unhappy, what in the long outcome will befall me?
30o I fear the goddess might have spoken the truth in all ways
when she said that on the sea and before I came to my country
I would go through hardships; now all this is being accomplished,
such clouds are these, with which Zeus is cramming the wide sky
and has staggered the sea, and stornablasts of winds from every
305 direction are crowding in. My sheer destruction is certain.
Three times and four times happy those Danaans were who died then
in wide Troy land, bringing favor to the sons of Atreus,
as I wish I too had died at that time and met my destiny
on the day when the greatest number of Trojans threw their bronze-
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