Ashita no Joe, Ping Pong the Animation Recommendations
The anime that I consider closest to Ping Pong is definitely Ashita no Joe, same goes the other way around where I consider Ping Pong the modern equivalent to Ashita no Joe.
While the themes of Ping Pong are Dreams and Talent, the themes of Tomorrows Joe (As you can partly guess from the english title) are Dreams and Passion. The two are also very similar stylistically both in visual direction (Namely Ashita no Joe 2's visual direction being similar to Ping Pong) and in that they're both not about the sport they cover but rather they are about the character's lives and how the sport
Both are character driven stories focusing on a talented, but rude and hotheaded protagonist. In both there are points where the character is an irredeemable asshole, but they are humbled after defeat and work harder to achieve their potential.
Both animes focus mainly on their characters, not on the sport itself (which is used to maximize the characters).